The appropriations process, in which Congress allocates agency and government spending, is a complicated mix of both procedure and politics.
Here’s how the process normally works:
Government spending is collected into 12 categories. The House Appropriations Committee (which is made up of various subcommittees) drafts and votes on a bill. After it’s passed the committee vote, the legislation then goes to the floor for a vote by the full House.
That process is repeated in the Senate, starting with the Appropriations Committee. However, the House and Senate versions are often not an exact match, so the bills must be reconciled in conference committee.