He came through the youth system at Schalke and played professionally for the club from 2007-18, including an injury-troubled loan spell at Juventus in 2017-18. Höwedes moved to Russia with Lokomotiv in 2018.
His announcement comes two weeks after another member of the 2014 World Cup-winning squad, Andre Schürrle, retired at the age of 29 after Borussia Dortmund agreed to release him.
Schürrle also had most recently played in the Russian league on a loan at Spartak Moscow.
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